Determination of ethinylestradiol and norgestrel in water using solid-phase microextraction

  • Mereke Baurzhanovna Alimzhanova al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty
  • Yerlan Adilbekov al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • Yenglik Nurzhanova al-Farabi Kazakh National University
  • Svetlana Batyrbekova al-Farabi Kazakh National University


Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter some function of the endocrine system and have adverse health effects on intact organisms, their off spring or (sub)populations. EDCs mimic or block the action of natural hormones, and hence biological functions in living organisms, thus leading to impaired reproduction, growth and development. The article focuses on the development of analytical method based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry for detection of steroid hormones ethinylestradiol and norgestrel in water samples. In this work, studies were carried out on model water samples spiked with a mixture of ethinylestradiol and norgestrel. The following parameters of headspace solid-phase microextraction were optimized as a result of experiments: extraction temperature 80°C, extraction time 20 min, NaCl additive – 1.5 g, fiber coating – 65 µm PDMS/DVB. 

Author Biographies

Mereke Baurzhanovna Alimzhanova, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty

Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis

Yerlan Adilbekov, al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis
Yenglik Nurzhanova, al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis
Svetlana Batyrbekova, al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis


1       Singh B, Kumar A, Malikc AK (2014) Crit Rev Anal Chem 44:255-269.

2      Azzouz A, Ballesteros E (2014) J Chromatogr A 1360:248-257.

3       Mansilha C, Melo A, Rebelo H, Ferreira IMPLVO, Pinho O, Domingues V, Pinho C, Gameiro P (2010) J Chromatogr A 1217:6681-6691.

4       Tan BLL, Hawker DW, Muller JF, Tremblay LA, Chapman НF (2008) Water Research 42:404-412.

5      Gilbert N (2012) Nature 491:503-504.

6       Media centre of ‘World Health Organization’, 19 Feb. (2013) Effects of human exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals examined in landmark UN report.

7       Huang C, Sedlak D (2001) Environ Toxicol Chem 20:133-139.

8       Li Z, Wang S, Alice Lee N, Allan RD, Kennedy IR (2004) Anal Chim Acta 503:171-177.

9       Desbrow C, Routledge EJ, Brighty GC, Sumpter JP, Waldock M (1998) Environmental Science and Technology 32:1549-1558.

10  Larsson DGJ, Adolfsson-Erici M, Parkkonen J, Pettersson M, Berg AH, Olsson PE, Förlin L (1999) Aquat Toxicol 45:91-97.

11  Rodgers-Gray TP, Jobling S, Morris S, Kelly C, Kirby S, Janbakhsh A, Harries JE, Waldock MJ, Sumpter JP, Tyler CR (2000) Environmental Science and Technology 34:1521-1528.

12  Barber LB, Brown GK, Zaugg SD (1999) ACS Symp Ser 747:97-123.

13  Siegener R, Chen RF (2000) ACS ACS Symp Ser 747:125-132.

14  Kuch HM, Ballschmiter K (2000) Fresen J Anal Chem 366:392-395.

15  Johnson C, Belfroid A, Di Corcia A (2000) Sci Total Environ 256:163-173.

16  Jones-Lepp TL, Alvarez DA, Petty JD, Huckins JN (2004) Arch Environ Con Tox 47:427-439.

17  Ternes TA, Stumpf M, Mueller J, Haberer K, Wilken RD, Servos M (1999) Sci Total Environ 225:81-90.

18  Voulvoulis N (2003) Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupters. In: Endocrine disrupters in wastewater and sludge treatment processes. CRC Press LLC, NY, USA.

19  Labadie P, Budzinski H (2005) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 381:1199-1205.

20  Jeannot R, Sabik H, Sauvard E, Dagnac T, Dohrendorf K (2002) J Chromatogr A 974:143-159.

21  Xiao XY, McCalley DV, McEvoy J (2001) J Chromatogr A 923:195-204.

22  Braun P, Moeder M, Schrader S, Popp P, Kuschk P, Engewald W (2003) J Chromatogr A 988:41-51.

23  Noppe H, Verslycke T, De Wulf E, Verheyden K, Monteyne E, Van Caeter P, Janssen CR, De brabander HF (2007) Ecotox Environ Safe 66:1-8.

24  Mol HG, Sunarto S, Steijger OM (2000) J Chromatogr A 879:97-112.

25  Labadie P, Budzinski H (2005) Environmental Science and Technology 39:5113-5120.

26  Stanford BD, Weinberg HS (2007) J Chromatogr A 1176:26-36.

27  Florez Menendez JC, Fernandez Sanchez ML, Sanchez Uria JE, Fernandez Martenez E, Sanz-Medel A (2000) Anal Chim Acta 415:9-20.

28  Fernandez MP, Ikonomou MG, Buchanan I (2007) Sci Total Environ 373:250-269.

29  Farahani H, Ganjali MR, Dinarvand R, Norouzi P (2008) Talanta 76:718-723.

30  Zhao JL, Ying GG, Wang L, Yang JF, Yang XB, Yang LH, Li X (2009) Sci Total Environ 407:962-974.

31  Martinez C, Ramirez N, Gomez V, Pocurull E, Borrull F et al (2013) Talanta 116:937-945.

32  Mousa A, Basheer C, Al-Arfaj AR et al (2013) Talanta 115:308-313.

33  Boitsov S, Meier S, Klungsoyr J, Svardal A (2004) J Chromatogr A 1059:131-141.

34  Cantero M, Rubio S, Pérez-Bendito D (2006) J Chromatogr A 1120:260-267.

35  Shan XM, Shen DH, Wang BS, Lu BB, Huang FY (2014) Biomed Environ Sci 27:471-474.

36  Risticevic S, Lord H, Górecki T, Arthur CL, Pawliszyn J (2010) Nature Protocols 5:122-139.


How to Cite
ALIMZHANOVA, Mereke Baurzhanovna et al. Determination of ethinylestradiol and norgestrel in water using solid-phase microextraction. Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University, [S.l.], n. 3-4, p. 52-62, dec. 2016. ISSN 2312-7554. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 may 2017. doi:
Analytical Chemistry


ethinylestradiol; water sample; gas-chromatography; mass-spectrometry; solid-phase microextraction