Synthesis and characterization of graphene layers from rice husks
In this work, a method of obtaining graphene layers from natural source specifically from rice husk was developed. A rice husk (RH) was used as a raw material, and potassium hydroxide was used as activation agent. The graphene layers were obtained after four successive stages: pre-carbonization, desilication in 1M NaOH solution, chemical activation and exfoliation of the carbonized rice husk (CRH). The obtained samples were studied using Raman spectroscopy, TEM and SEM; the Raman peaks evidenced the presence of graphene multilayers in the sample. A detailed observation of Raman spectroscopy showed that the obtained samples with ratio of 1/4 and 1/5 (RH/KOH) consisted of graphene layers with a high content of amorphous component. The yield of the product was ~ 3% by weight. This study can provide a new way to the large-scale synthesis of low-cost single and multi-layered graphene using rice husk or other renewable resources.
2 Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Dubonos SV, Hill EW, Grigorieva IV (2003) Nature 426:812-816. Crossref
3 Berger C, Song Z, Li X, Wu X, Brown N, Naud C, Mayou D, et al (2006) Science 312: 1191-1196. Crossref
4 Dresselhaus MS, Araujo PT (2010) ASC Nano 4(11):6297-6302. Crossref
5 Korobochkin VV, Nguyen MH, Usol’ceva NV, Nguyen VT (2017) Proceedings of Tomsk Polytechnic University. Engineering Georesources [Izvestiya TPU. Inzhiniring georesursov] 328(5):6-15.
6 Muramatsu H, Kim YA, Hayashi T (2016) TANSO 275:182-190. Crossref
7 Muramatsu H, Kim YA, Yang KS, Silva RC, Toda I, Yamada T, et al (2014) Small 10(14):2766-2770. Crossref
8 Singh P, Bahadur J, Pal K (2017) Graphene 6:61-71. Crossref
9 Seitzhanova M.A., Kerimkulova MR, Shyntoreev EB, Azat S, Kerimkulova AR, Mansurov ZA (2015) Chem Bull Kazakh Univ 2(78):37-41. Crossref
10 Jandosov JM, Shikina NV, Bijsenbayev MA, Shamalov ME, Ismagilov ZR, Mansurov ZA (2009) Eurasian Chem Tech J 11:245-252
11 Ko TH, Day TC (1994) Polym Composite 15:401-407. Crossref
12 GOST 25699.4-90 Carbon black for rubber industry. Method for determination of specific surface area by inert gas adsorption. Publ. 05.12.1990, State Standard of the Union of SSR [Gosudarstvennyi standard Soyuza SSR]. (In Russian)
13 Wang J, Kaskel S (2012) J Mater Chem 22:23710-23725. Crossref
14 Seitzhanova MA, Chenchik DI, Mansurov ZA, D Capua R (2017) Functional Nanostructures Proceedings 1(3):6-8
15 Seitzhanova MA, Mansurov ZA, Chenchik DI, Tanirbergenova SK, Daulbaev CB (2017) Production of graphene based on rice husk for the demineralization of sea water using membrane technology. Proceedings of the II Conference of students and young scientists “Chemical Physics and Nanomaterials”, Almaty, Kazakhstan. P.48.
16 Prikhod’ko NG, Mansurov ZA, Auelkhankyzy M, Lesbaev BT, Nazhipkyzy M, Smagulova GT (2015) Russ J Phys Chem B 9:743-747. Crossref
17 Reina A, Jia X, Ho J, et al (2008) Nanoscale Res Lett 3:496. Crossref
18 Robertson AW and Warner JH (2011) Nanoscale Res Lett 11:1182. Crossref
19 Jandosov JM, Mikhalovsky SV, Howell CA, Mansurov ZA, Chenchik DI, Kosher BK, et al (2017) Eurasian Chem Tech J 19:303-313. Crossref
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.