Powder bismuth-based anode material for magnesium-ion batteries and its properties
In this work an intercalation anode material synthesized on the base of the powdered bismuth is presented. The uniformly distribution of carbon paste suspension over the substrate surface was found out by scanning-electron microscopy. The regularities of electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation of magnesium ions into the electrode created on the base of powdered bismuth in a solution of 0.25 mol/L Mg(N(SO2CF3)2)2 on the base of acetonitrile were studied. The cyclic voltammograms with the results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic emission analysis indicate that in the cathode area the reduction processes proceed with the formation of an intermetallic compound – MgxBiy; two peaks were observed at the reverse course which were conceivably corresponding to two-stage magnesium oxidation. According to cyclic voltammograms by the difference in the potential of peaks in the forward and reverse directions it was established that the processes of reduction and oxidation of magnesium ions into intercalation material were irreversible. The diffusion coefficients of intercalation and deintercalation into the electrode material were calculated using the Rendles-Shevchik equation; they were 3.12·10-11 sm2/s and 1.85·10-11 sm2/s, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated the cubic structure of the bismuth crystal lattice with altered parameters corresponding to inter-metallide formation. At galvanostatic cycling of the synthesized anode material a capacity of up to 104 mA·h·g-1 at current load 1C was achieved. Such results can be a good indicator for the development of magnesium-ion power sources.
2. Monroe C, Newman J (2003) J Electrochem Soc 150:A1377-A1384. Crossref
3. Barai P, Higa K, Srinivasan V (2017) Phys Chem Chem Phys 22:2590-2591. Crossref
4. Barai P, Higa K, Srinivasan V (2016) J Electrochem Soc 164:A180-A189. Crossref
5. Aurbach D, Pour N (2011) Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys in Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering. Woodhead Publishing, UK. P.484-515. Crossref
6. Aurbach D, Lu Z, Schechter A, Gofer Y, Gizbar H, Turgeman R, Cohen Y, Moshkovich M, Levi E (2000) Nature 407:724-727. Crossref
7. Saha P, Datta MK, Velikokhatnyi OI, Manivannan A, Alman D, Kumta PN (2014) Prog Mater Sci 66:1-86. Crossref
8. Jin W, Li Z, Wang, Fu YQ (2016) Mater Chem Phys 182:167-172. Crossref
9. Penki TR, Valurouthu G, Shivakumara S, Sethuraman VA, New J Chem 42:5996-6004. Crossref
10. Murgia F, Stievano L, Monconduit L, Berthelot R (2015) Mater Chem A 3:16478-16485. Crossref
11. Arthur TS, Singh N, Matsui M (2012) Electrochem Commun 16:103-106. Crossref
12. Abildina AK, Agimbayeva AM, Urazkeldiyeva DA (2019) Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan 324:32-38. Crossref
13. Huang J, Song GL, Atrens A, Dargusch M. What activates the Mg surface (2020) J Mater Sci Technol 57:204-220. Crossref
14. Hence G (2014) Polarrolarography and voltammetry. Theoretical foundations and analytical practice [Polarographiya i voltamperometriya. Teoreticheskiye osnovy i analiticheskaiya practika]. Binom, Laboratory of knowledges, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian). ISBN 978-5-9963-2376-0
15. Wang W, Liu L, Wang PF, Zuo TT, Yin YX, et al (2017) Chem Commun 54:1714-1717. Crossref
16. Matin S, Nia BA, Hanif Z, Rostam M (2013) Eur Phys J Appl Phys 61:10103. Crossref
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.