Monitoring of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan
The pollution of ambient air is one of the main sources of risk to human health in the world. There is a direct relationship between the level of air pollution and risk of the development of cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) are one of the most toxic volatile organic compounds. The aim of this study was to quantify BTEX in air of Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection. In different sampling seasons, average concentrations of four BTEX analytes varied from 7.5 to 27 µg/m3, from 15 to 250 µg/m3, from 2.4 to 12.8 µg/m3 and from 2.6 to 21 µg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations of TEX were detected in autumn, while the highest concentrations of benzene were observed in winter. Toluene-to-benzene ratios in almost all measurements were above 1 indicating that the traffic emissions are the main source of air pollution with BTEX.
2 Atkinson J, Arey R (2003) Chem Rev 103:4605-4638. Crossref
3 Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL (2008) Can Med Assoc J 179:147-152.
4 EPA (2009) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Benzene. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.
5 Krol S, Zabiegala BNJ, Król S, Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J (2010) TrAC – Trends Anal Chem 29:1101-1112. Crossref
6 Wang P, Zhao W (2008) Atmos Res 89:289-297.
7 Compendium Method TO-15 (1999) US Environ Prot Agency 12.
8 Batterman S, Zhang G, Baumann M (1998) Atmos Environ 1647-1655.
9 Compendium Method TO-17 (1999) Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Active Sampling Onto Sorbent Tubes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
10 (2007) GOST R ISO 16017-1-2007. Atmospheric air, the working area and enclosed spaces. Sampling of volatile organic compounds using a sorption tubes with subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis on capillary columns, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian)
11 Sanchez J, Sacks R (2007) J Sep Sci 30(7):1052-60.
12 Feng C, Mitra S (2000) J Microcolumn Sep 12:267-275. Crossref
13 Gong Y, Eom IY, Lou DW, Hein D, Pawliszyn J (2008) Anal Chem 80:7275-7282. Crossref
14 Elke K, Jermann E (1998) J Chromatogr 826:191-200. Crossref
15 Khaled A, Pawliszyn J (2000) J Chromatogr A 892:455-467. Crossref
16 Carlsen L, Kenessov BN, Baimatova NK, Kenessova OA (2013) Int J Biol Chem 1(5):49-69.
17 Baimatova N, Kenessov B, Koziel JA, Carlsen L, Bektassov M, Demyanenko OP (2016) Talanta 154:46-52. Crossref
18 Liu K, Zhang C, Cheng Y, Liu C, Zhang H, Zhang G, Sun X, Mu Y (2015) J Environ Sci 30:186-190. Crossref
19 Khoder MI (2007) Atmos Environ 41:554-566. Crossref
20 Gee IL, Sollars CJ (1998) Chemosphere 36:2497-2506. Crossref
21 Miller L, Xu X (2012) Atmos Environ 61:305-315. Crossref
22 Carlsen L, Bruggemann R, Kenessov B (2018) Sci Total Environ 610-611:234-243. Crossref
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.