Monitoring of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan

Keywords: SPME, GC-MS, BTEX, air pollution, air analysis, Taldykorgan


The pollution of ambient air is one of the main sources of risk to human health in the world. There is a direct relationship between the level of air pollution and risk of the development of cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) are one of the most toxic volatile organic compounds. The aim of this study was to quantify BTEX in air of Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection. In different sampling seasons, average concentrations of four BTEX analytes varied from 7.5 to 27 µg/m3, from 15 to 250 µg/m3, from 2.4 to 12.8 µg/m3 and from 2.6 to 21 µg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations of TEX were detected in autumn, while the highest concentrations of benzene were observed in winter. Toluene-to-benzene ratios in almost all measurements were above 1 indicating that the traffic emissions are the main source of air pollution with BTEX.


1 (2018) World Health Organization. Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. Link

2 Atkinson J, Arey R (2003) Chem Rev 103:4605-4638. Crossref

3 Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL (2008) Can Med Assoc J 179:147-152.

4 EPA (2009) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Benzene. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.

5 Krol S, Zabiegala BNJ, Król S, Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J (2010) TrAC – Trends Anal Chem 29:1101-1112. Crossref

6 Wang P, Zhao W (2008) Atmos Res 89:289-297.

7 Compendium Method TO-15 (1999) US Environ Prot Agency 12.

8 Batterman S, Zhang G, Baumann M (1998) Atmos Environ 1647-1655.

9 Compendium Method TO-17 (1999) Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Active Sampling Onto Sorbent Tubes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

10 (2007) GOST R ISO 16017-1-2007. Atmospheric air, the working area and enclosed spaces. Sampling of volatile organic compounds using a sorption tubes with subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis on capillary columns, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian)

11 Sanchez J, Sacks R (2007) J Sep Sci 30(7):1052-60.

12 Feng C, Mitra S (2000) J Microcolumn Sep 12:267-275. Crossref

13 Gong Y, Eom IY, Lou DW, Hein D, Pawliszyn J (2008) Anal Chem 80:7275-7282. Crossref

14 Elke K, Jermann E (1998) J Chromatogr 826:191-200. Crossref

15 Khaled A, Pawliszyn J (2000) J Chromatogr A 892:455-467. Crossref

16 Carlsen L, Kenessov BN, Baimatova NK, Kenessova OA (2013) Int J Biol Chem 1(5):49-69.

17 Baimatova N, Kenessov B, Koziel JA, Carlsen L, Bektassov M, Demyanenko OP (2016) Talanta 154:46-52. Crossref

18 Liu K, Zhang C, Cheng Y, Liu C, Zhang H, Zhang G, Sun X, Mu Y (2015) J Environ Sci 30:186-190. Crossref

19 Khoder MI (2007) Atmos Environ 41:554-566. Crossref

20 Gee IL, Sollars CJ (1998) Chemosphere 36:2497-2506. Crossref

21 Miller L, Xu X (2012) Atmos Environ 61:305-315. Crossref

22 Carlsen L, Bruggemann R, Kenessov B (2018) Sci Total Environ 610-611:234-243. Crossref
How to Cite
Serik, L., Ibragimova, O., Ussenova, G., & Baimatova, N. (2019). Monitoring of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan. Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University, 95(4), 4-12.