New method for the discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

Keywords: gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, cognac, brandy, solid-phase microextraction, principal component analysis, adulteration

Abstract

The article represents new method for discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solidphase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The work comprised optimization of SPME parameters (extraction temperature and time, concentration of added salt) with subsequent analysis of authentic samples and comparison of the obtained chromatograms using principal component analysis (PCA). According to the obtained results, increase of extraction temperature resulted in an increase of response of the most volatile brandy constituents. To avoid chemical transformations and/or degradation of the samples, the extraction temperature must be limited to 30!C. Increase of the extraction time lead to higher total peak area, but longer extraction times (>10 min for 100 µm polydimethylsiloxane and >2 min for divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers) caused displacement of analytes. Salt addition increased total response of analytes, but caused problems with reproducibility. The developed method was successfully applied for discovery of adulterated samples of brandy, cognac, whisky and whiskey sold in Kazakhstan. The obtained data was analyzed applying principal component analysis (PCA). Five adulterated brandy and whisky samples were discovered and confirmed. The developed method is recommended for application in forensic laboratories.

Author Biographies

Darya Mozhayeva, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis, Engineer
Aray Zhakupbekova, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis, Chief Engineer
Bulat Kenessov, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis, Vice-Director, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Saule Akmoldayeva, Almaty Institute of Forensic Expertise, Forensic Expertise Center of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty
Vice-Director
Lars Carlsen, Awareness Center, Roskilde
Director, D.Sc., Professor

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Published
2014-12-30
How to Cite
Mozhayeva, D., Zhakupbekova, A., Kenessov, B., Akmoldayeva, S., & Carlsen, L. (2014). New method for the discovery of adulterated cognacs and brandies based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University, (4), 53-66. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15328/chemb_2014_453-66
Section
Analytical Chemistry