Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in soil and atmospheric precipitations in the cities of Almaty and Astana

Dina Sailaubekkyzy Orazbayeva, Ulzhalgas Abdikalikyzy Karatayeva, Bulat Kenessov, Kulzhan Adambayevna Beisembayeva, Kulyash Sadykovna Meyramkulova

Abstract


BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) is one of the most dangerous groups of organic toxicants in terms of emissions and risks to public health. BTEX are present in almost all technogenic and natural objects. The greatest risk to public health is caused by BTEX contamination of cities characterized by high population densities and emissions to the environment. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in samples of soils and atmospheric precipitations selected in the cities of Almaty and Astana. Screening and quantification of analytes was performed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Solid-phase microextraction was used for sample preparation. In the soil samples collected in the cities of Almaty and Astana, the concentrations of analytes ranged from 29.9 to 455 ng/g for benzene, from 9.9 to 375 ng/g for toluene, from 1.8 to 386 ng/g for ethylbenzene, and from 2.4 to 217 ng/g for o-xylene. Concentrations of BTEX in samples of atmospheric precipitations varied in the range of 8.2-21.2 ng/g for benzene; 0.8-5.1 ng/g for toluene; 0.1-1.1 ng/g for ethylbenzene; and 0.2-0.5 ng/g for o-xylene. BTEX concentrations in analyzed soil samples were in average ten times higher than those measured in European cities.


Keywords


benzene; toluene; ethylbenzene; xylene; aromatic hydrocarbons; soil; gas chromatography; solid phase microextraction

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15328/cb737

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